Advice On Purchasing Commercial Land In India

Investing in commercial plots has grown in popularity in recent years, thanks to attractive returns on investment and expanding commercial real estate opportunities. discusses important factors to consider before purchasing commercial land in India.

Commercial real estate is one of India’s fastest-growing markets. It consists of offices, retail establishments, institutions, and industrial developments. Simply put, commercial property is property that is owned to generate income. While many people prefer developed structures, commercial plots have gained popularity due to higher returns, faster resale, and lower investment costs when compared to the former. However, in order to avoid legal issues, it is critical to be aware of the nuances of commercial land investment. There are numerous factors to consider, ranging from paperwork to zoning laws.


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Things to consider before purchasing commercial land

“When purchasing a commercial plot, it is critical to check the property’s registration papers,”  This will allow you to determine the number of property owners and whether the seller has the right to trade the asset. Check for any loans or pledges against land as well. If the land has previously been used as a mortgage, make sure there are no outstanding debts or that the seller clears them before closing the deal.”


The following are various strategies for purchasing commercial land in India.


  • Land banking: In this case, the buyer acquires a land parcel with the potential for future infrastructure development. As the development approaches, the value of the land rises, as do the profits from resale.
  • Developer: The purpose of purchasing commercial land is to build properties and sell or lease the finished spaces.
  • Wholesaling is the process of purchasing a property, putting it under contract, and then selling the contract to another investor or business owner.
  • When you don’t have the time to manage or operate a commercial property, passive investing is the best option. To generate income, you invest in pre-leased properties.
  • Aside from profit, commercial real estate investors benefit from attractive financing options and equity appreciation.


Types of commercial property


Property Type


Malls, shops, retail centres and stores


Factories, warehouses and manufacturing plants

Office spaces

Corporate offices/spaces


Hotels/motels/tourism agencies


Schools/colleges/coaching institutes


Examine the location

The most important factor to consider when purchasing a commercial land parcel is its location. It should be easily accessible and well-equipped. This is because an investment in a prime location ensures increased demand and thus higher profits. Furthermore, it is critical to ensure that the land is located within a clearly defined commercial zone. Uncontrolled development, such as boundaries, fences, or anything else that is incompatible with the permitted area, must be avoided.

To determine the land-use classification for commercial purposes, Indian civic authorities use a zoning system based on Euclidean geometry. Towns are divided into districts in Euclidean zoning, resulting in specific zones where different land uses are permitted or prohibited. As a result, as land banks shrink, zoning becomes more integrated.

Warehouses, offices, restaurants, shops, and industries can all be built on commercial land. However, the proximity of one business zone to another is determined by the type of business and the amount of vehicle traffic it attracts. Buildings in business districts may be subject to regulations such as height restrictions, minimum setbacks, and parking requirements.


Planning authorities also use coloured land maps to indicate zones and patterns of use. The following codes are used for commercial purposes:



Land use

Red zone

Such lands are meant for specific purposes like schools, hospitals, places of worship or similar social infrastructure

Dark blue

Allocated for retail, cinemas and hospitality purposes

Dark yellow

Grocery stores and shops are examples of what could be develope on such lands. Generally, yellow areas represent mixed-use developments (residential +commercial) where about 33 percent of commercial activity is permitted. Light yellow implies only residential developments

Light blue

Use for commercial purposes, such as business districts

Grey zone

Permits development of heavy industries and manufacturing facilities

Light purple or violet

Regular industries and factory establishments allowed

Dark purple or violet

Suitable for technology-oriented industries


Examine the taxes and returns

Rent from any property you own is generally taxed as ‘income from house property.’ This is also true of commercial real estate. As a result, consider the tax and insurance costs when calculating annual profits. This will help you visualise how your investment will look in the future.

Rental income is taxed based on the actual rent received or the rent that can be reasonably expected from such property. Furthermore, income tax laws allow certain deductions against rent received when calculating income under the heading ‘income from house property.’

Rent paid or received for such a property is deductible at a fixed rate of 30%. This standard deduction is available for commercial properties that are rented or treated as rented, regardless of the amount spent on the property. Nonetheless, under Section 24(b) of the Income Tax Act, residential and commercial properties may claim the interest deduction. Any processing fees and prepayment penalties paid to a financial institution in exchange for taking out a loan can also be claimed as interest. Interest can be deducted not only on money borrowed from banks, but also on money borrowed from friends and family.


Purchasing Commercial Land In India: Select a viable model.

Commercial real estate fractional ownership is a new way to acquire property, and the ritual of fractional ownership is manage by a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV). The ownership refers to a structure in which investors pool their funds to buy a property. The financial burden of owning a property can be reduce for a single investor by using this approach, and the investor can earn returns on their investment.


Fractional ownership models can differ depending on the type of commercial property and the tax treatment-

  • Joint ownership: This model allows all owners to hold title to the property and use it without interfering with the rights of other owners.
  • Investors interested in purchasing commercial property form a cooperative society and then purchase it in the cooperative society’s name.
  • Company structure: The fractional shareowners establish a corporation and become shareholders.
  • A trust structure is a group of trustees who come together to buy a property. However, the trust’s author must have the right to sell the property. In addition, the seller must execute the trust deed on behalf of the proposed fractional owners.


Purchasing Commercial Land In India: Legal compliances

Release of Lien: When purchasing commercial construction land, ensure that it has been ‘Release of Lien.’ The term ‘Release of Lien’ denotes that all payments to contractors and suppliers have been made and that the owner has complete control of the property.

Code compliance: The commercial property you are thinking about investing in must adhere to all local codes and regulations. It is prudent to visit the municipal office and obtain an up-to-date list of the laws that apply to the purchase of commercial land, as they change on a regular basis.

Hold harmless agreement: If you are purchasing commercial real estate, you must include a hold harmless clause in the sales agreement. This clause will protect you from any financial or legal issues that may arise during the construction phase of the property.

If the commercial land is discovere to be unfit for development during construction, there could be serious financial or legal ramifications, which can be avoided if a ‘hold harmless clause’ is included in the sales deed.


Purchasing Commercial Land In India: Government policies

Construction on commercial land in India must follow the guidelines established by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. The regulations cover the following key points:

  • The commercial space offered should ideally be an open hall on a single floor. If the space is offere on multiple floors, it should have a dedicated entry for movement between floors.
  • Ample parking space for vehicles should be provided.
  • Office buildings for rent should be finish and ready to go.
  • The office space should be clear of all impediments and easily accessible by public transportation.
  • According to the rules, the rent finalise by the lessor-lessee must be authorised by CPWD/approved by the Government of India.
  • The space should be equipped with public utilities, such as 24-hour electricity and running water.


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Disclaimer: The views of this expressed above are for informational purposes only based on the industry reports & related news stories. does not guarantee the accuracy of this article, completeness, or reliability of the information & shall not be held responsible for any action taken based on the published information.
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