Definition, characteristics, types, and uses of hydraulic jumping

Hydraulic Jumping: Both as a subject of academic study and in daily life, hydraulics is fascinating. One of the most frequent scenarios in hydraulic science is the hydraulic jump. In open channel flow, the hydraulic leap can be notice. Rivers or different spillways are shown by open channels. Leonardo da Vinci was the first to notice and analyse this entire phenomenon in the 1500s. But, based on the debate, Giorgio Bidone of Turin University learned the mathematical specifics of the hydraulic jump.


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What is a hydraulic jump?

An essential component of civil engineering that aids in the creation of modern infrastructure and flood control is maintaining the flow of water. Engineers must also forecast how water will behave when designing irrigation systems. The study of fluid mechanics aids in comprehension of water’s behaviour.

As the depth or flow of the water changes, a hydraulic jump or standing wave is create. The state often shifts from supercritical to subcritical.

The depth of the water flow increases towards the critical depth as the slope of the open channel decreases from steep to shallow, and eventually the flow becomes unstable. Unless a new standard depth is adopt on the upstream side, the flow becomes turbulent. One example of this phenomena is a hydraulic leap.

Hydraulic jump: Key expressions for the open channel flow

Depth of flow: The highest point in an open channel where water can flow.

Critical depth: The lowest depth at which the flow velocity is too great. Moreover, the flow has increased turbulence at this depth. Critical velocity refers to the speed of water at this depth.

Supercritical depth :  Supercritical depth, which refers to the highly severe supercritical conditions of the underlying flow that occur in dams or other irrigation facilities, is the depth of water less than the critical depth.

Subcritical depth: Deeper than the critical depth, but with a lesser velocity than the critical velocity.

Hydraulic jump: Specifications

There are a number aspects of hydraulic leap to take into account, including the following:

  • The hydraulic jump is inherently unsteady.
  • hydraulic jump is not consistent.
  • The hydraulic jump’s properties can swiftly alter as the wind direction shifts.


Hydraulic jump: uses

Inevitably, as the drain pipe travels down the overflow, a hydraulic jump forms to reduce the water’s energy. It’s crucial to conserve that energy and keep the speed constant. The term “energy dissipation in hydraulic structures” refers to this phenomena.

Moreover, air locking can be readily eliminate with the hydraulic jump by removing air from the pipeline.

Types of hydraulic jump

Undular hydraulic jump

The water particles in the undular jumps are turbulent and have an uneven form.

Weak jump

When the water’s velocity is very low, the water’s particles can no longer remain stable and flow in a predictable manner, resulting in a faint jump.

Oscillating hydraulic jump

Several particles oscillate in either a clockwise or anticlockwise direction during an oscillating jump when the oscillating jet approaches a supercritical state, producing minute tides or waves on the upper surface. Strong air currents in one direction are also necessary for flow.

Steady hydraulic jump

In stable jumps, the surface of the bed is so rough that the particles tend to move more quickly and turbulently in one direction, leading to substantial frictional losses in this kind of hydraulic jump.

Strong hydraulic jump

A complete jump is refer to as a powerful jump when there is substantial friction loss, even air pressure distribution, and extremely high speeds, all of which cause losses. Since it transitions water from supercritical to subcritical in a shorter time than other other hydraulic jumps, it is widely recommend in dam designs.


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