Indian commercial banks

Every nation’s economy revolves around its banks, which are crucial to the nation’s economic development and the expansion of its financial sector. According to the Reserve Bank of India Act of 1934’s core framework, all significant Indian banks are regarded as commercial institutions. However, there are further types of banks that fall under the planned banking category, including cooperative, payment, and microfinance banks. Public sector banks, foreign banks, private sector banks, local banks, & regional banks are further categories for commercial banks. The Banking Regulation Act of 1949 governs them and gives them permission to carry on business, keep deposits, and extend credit to individuals, organisations, and the government.

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Commercial banks are financial organisations that offer their clients services including loans, CDs, savings accounts, and overdraft lines of credit. These organisations generate revenue by making loans to private borrowers and collecting interest. Commercial banks provide a variety of loans, including those for businesses, automobiles, homes, people, and education.

They fund these loans using deposits made by their customers in different kinds of accounts. Deposits serve as the capital they employ to extend loans. Commercial banks play a crucial role in the nation’s economy through fostering market liquidity, credit, and capital. These banks are often found in urban areas, however nowadays you can access the majority of their services.


The background of Indian commercial banks

Some of India’s commercial banks date back more than a century. They have locations all around the nation, and they are branching out into the provinces. Commercial banks in India have gone through three stages since their independence. In Indian banking, a public sector formed between 1955 and 1970. It started in 1955 with the founding of the National Bank of India and culminated in 1969 with the nationalization of fourteen important banks.

Twenty years after banks were nationalized; mass banking began to replace class banking in the 1970s and 1980s. During this time, there was a significant branch growth, which was followed by the hiring of numerous bank workers & increased funding for priority sectors, particularly the underserved and poorer ones.

There were difficulties in the post-nationalization era. Insufficient training has decreased employee productivity and efficiency, aggravated the issue of loan non-collection, and raised financing expectations to satisfy regulatory standards, decreasing bank profitability. In 1991, when the government unveiled a new economic strategy, this was the situation. A financial sector committee led by Sri M. Narasimham was formed to make a variety of recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness, output, and profitability of banks.


How do commercial banks operate?

Basic banking services are offered by commercial banks to the general public, including private individuals and small businesses. By assessing fees and charges for services, banks generate revenue. Fees, including as overdraft fees, locker fees, or reminder fees, change depending on the items supplied. In addition to the interest on the loan, different loans also include various expenses.

Banks use funds from consumer deposits and profit from lending. They give relatively lower rates on deposits from their customers and charge higher interest rates on loans. As an illustration, a bank might offer 2% interest on savings accounts while charging 4.8% yearly interest on mortgages.

Commercial banks typically have locations near ATMs as well as other teller facilities where consumers can readily access their services. Due to recent advancements in internet technology, the majority of banks now permit their customers to do the majority of their business online. Nowadays, people can send money, make deposits, & pay bills online.


Indian commercial banks’ importance

Due to the fact that they give their customers essential services, foster market liquidity, & generate capital, commercial banks are essential to the economy. Banks maintain market liquidity by making loans from the deposits of their clients. Commercial banks contribute to economic growth by helping to create the credit that boosts output, employment, & consumer spending.

Therefore, commercial banks are subject to stringent regulation by the central bank of their nation or region. For instance, commercial banks are subject to reserve requirements set by the central bank. This means that banks must reserve a specific portion of client deposits at the central bank as a safety net in case customers request cash withdrawals.


Indian commercial banks’ home loan interest rates

The fourth time in a row since May 2022, the RBI has increased repo rates by 190 basis points, but second-half growth in Indian mortgages defies the trend. The rate boost in home savings rates has been adopted by almost all banks, but as of October 5, 2022, the following banks are offering the lowest home savings rates:


Bank Home loan interest rate
Bank of Baroda 7.95%
Canara Bank 7.80%
Kotak Mahindra Bank 8.49%
Central Bank of India 7.50%
ICICI Bank 9.25%
Union Bank of India 7.75%
State Bank of India 8.15%
HDFC 8.60%
Punjab National Bank 7.90%
Axis Bank 8.10%


Analysis of loans from the top 5 commercial banks in India

Kotak Mahindra Bank

The bank, which has locations in more than 100 Indian cities, is run by Uday Kotak, a rapidly expanding private financial organisation. Right now, Kotak Mahindra has the lowest mortgage rates available.

Bank name Interest rates
Kotak Mahindra Bank Business Loan 15 – 16%
Kotak Mahindra Bank Home Loan 6.95 – 7.75%
Kotak Mahindra Bank Personal Loan 10.8 – 12%
Kotak Mahindra Bank Loan Against Property 8.75 – 9.45%

Most years of service: 30

Fees: None at this time usually between 0.5 and 1% of the loan amount.

Budget-Friendly Scale: High

Benefits: Use the Kotak Digi Home Loan Facility to receive quick mortgage approval. Since the bank has continued to offer the lowest interest rates on the market over the past year and intends to remain the housing finance segment as its primary focus, borrowers should anticipate extended benefits.

Cons: Kotak Mahindra has a poor market presence in India compared to several official lenders. For a number of reasons, mortgages need you to physically visit a branch.


Union Bank of India

When the government combined Corporation Bank and Andhra Bank in 2020, Union Bank of India, situated in Mumbai, created headlines. The bank currently operates more than 9,300 branches and 11,800 ATMs.

Bank name Interest rates
Union Bank of India Home Loan 8.50%
Union Bank of India Personal Loan 10.4%

No more than 30 Years

Processing Fee: 0.5% of the loan amount up to Rs. 15,000 plus GST

Budget-Friendly Scale: High

Benefits: There is no maximum mortgage amount with Union Bank.

Cons: In comparison to other public lenders, Union Bank has fewer branches.


Punjab National Bank

The second-largest public sector bank in India, PNB, also provides house loans at competitive rates. The 1894-founded bank, which has 6,937 branches and more than 8 crore customers in 764 cities, is situated in New Delhi.

Bank Name Interest Rates
PNB Personal Loan 8.75 – 9%
PNB Home Loan 4 – 8.9%

30 years is the maximum holding term.

There are currently no fees: It is typically 0.35 percent of the loan amount, with a minimum and maximum of Rs. 2,500 and Rs. 15,000, respectively.

Budget-Friendly Scale: High

Benefits: The temporary suspension of processing costs lessens the overall burden placed on borrowers. The bank will always reward customers, even those with excellent credit.

Cons: A sharp surge in bad loans and allegations of involvement in fraud cases has recently done serious damage to the bank’s reputation. Additionally, borrowers could discover the service to be far less accommodating than most private lenders.


State Bank of India (SBI)

More than 30,000 homebuyers have received assistance from India’s largest mortgage lender, the publicly traded State Bank of India (SBI). This 1955-founded lender has more than 24,000 locations both domestically and abroad. With a book size of Rs. 5.5 trillion, the State Bank of India is the dominant player in the mortgage market.

Bank Name Interest Rates
SBI Loan Against Property 9.45 – 10.5%
SBI Personal Loan 9.5 – 10.9%
SBI Business Loan 11.05 – 12%
SBI Home Loan 7 – 8.5%

No more than 30 Years

Service Fee: GST of 0.40% of the loan amount, with a minimum of Rs 10,000 and a maximum of Rs 30,000, is the service fee. The rate is 0.40% with a maximum of Rs 10,000 Plus tax for projects when the bank and developer are connected.

Budget-Friendly Scale: High

Advantages: When the RBI lowers its repo rate, State Bank is always the first to do so. Additionally, it makes sense to choose to one of the banks with the most expertise in India for your borrowing requirements. The borrower has another justification for continuing to use his SBI because of the bank’s strong financial standing. SBI has eliminated occupation-specific interest penalties and now charges both employees and self-employed individuals the same interest rate.

Cons: Since banks conduct thorough due diligence to confirm borrowers’ creditworthiness, there are additional paperwork to present. The highest interest rates are also extended to borrowers with credit scores of 750 or above.


Bank of Baroda

In April 2019, the Vadodara-based Bank of Baroda combined with Dena Bank & Vijaya Bank to become the third-largest bank in India. Together with thirteen other important Indian commercial banks, the Maharajah of Baroda created the bank in 1908. On July 19, 1969, the government decided to nationalize the company, which presently has over 10,000 branches both in India and internationally.

Bank name Interest rates
Bank of Baroda Loan Against Property 8.2 – 9.5%
Bank of Baroda Home Loan 6.9 – 7.8%
Bank of Baroda Business Loan 13.9 – 15%
Bank of Baroda Personal Loan 9.76 – 11%

A maximum of 30 years

Processing Fee: None at this time

Affordable: High

Positives: Our online platform’s loan application process is quite simple.

Cons: Due to higher borrowing fees, those with bad credit should focus on loans from HFCs or NBFCs. As was already established, public lenders take a very long time to communicate crucial information to customers.




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