India’s Standard Land Measuring Units

In India, a variety of regional land measurement units are used to calculate land area. Despite the widespread usage of conventional land measurement units, certain nations, like India, also utilise more widely accepted standards that have been in use for a while. In addition to the internationally recognised benchmarks, we examine the common land measurement units used in various parts of India in this article.

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How is land measured there?

Square Foot (sq ft)

A square foot (sq ft), which is equal to 0.11 square yards, is the most widely used unit. Developers are required by Indian real estate law to declare the area in square feet. Sq ft is an imperial unit of area measurement that is used to map the space while purchasing real estate. India, the US, the UK, Ghana, Bangladesh, Canada, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Liberia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Singapore are the nations where the use of square feet is most prevalent.


Square yard

A square yard is made up of 9 sq ft, making it larger than a sq ft. The units are frequently used to measure land all throughout the world, particularly in residential real estate. When determining circle rates in a number of Indian states, local governments use square yard as the benchmark value (in Rs per sq yard). For instance, the state government of Haryana sets land prices in metropolitan areas at one rupee per square yard.



The acre is one of the earliest units used to measure large areas of land and has gone through many variations throughout the years. Both the imperial and US systems of measurement use the modern acre, which is equal to 4,840 square yards, 43,560 square feet, 4,047 square metres, & 0.4047 hectares. An acre is also known as one furlong by four rods.

A single acre measures 43,560 square feet.


Square metre (sq mt)

A square metre, consisting of 10.76 square feet, is another typical land measurement unit used in India. The square metre, commonly known as sq m or M2, is a unit of area measurement equal to a square with a side length of one metre. According to that assessment, the parking space needed for a typical car would require almost 12 square metres.

These are not used when measuring length or distance in one direction because the square metre is a unit that measures area.



The metric unit known as the hectare, abbreviated ha, is frequently used to measure land or plots all throughout the world. The Latin words area & hect were combined to form the word hectare, which was first used in 1795. The area of a hectare is 1, 07,639 square feet.

One can compare a hectare to a football field to get a sense of the area covered. It is about the size of a field of soccer in Europe.


What distinguishes Square Metre (sqm) from Hectare?

The metric system’s unit of area is the hectar. It is 10,000 square metres in size. In both the British Imperial System & the US Customary measure, it is equivalent to 2.471 acres. The Latin word area and the irregular contraction of the Greek word for hundred, hect, are the sources of the word hectare. The International System of Units uses the square metre as its unit of area (SI). It is the surface area of a square with one-meter sides.


East India uses metric systems for measuring land

Unit States where it is used
Chatak West Bengal
Dhur UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, Tripura
Lecha Assam
Katta Assam, Bengal, Bihar


It is primarily utilised in West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Tripura. Depending on the context, dhur can refer to a variety of sizes. It is larger than 68 square feet in Bihar. It measures 3.6 square feet in Tripura. Dhur is also frequently used in Nepal.

Dhur is used in the following states: UP, Bihar, Jharkhand, and Tripura.



In addition to being widely utilised in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal, chatak is also widely used for land measurement in Bangladesh, a neighbouring country. In addition to chatak, West Bengal also makes extensive use of Katha for area measuring. 45 square feet are equivalent to one chatak.

West Bengal is one of the states that use Chatak.



The values of kattha (or katha), which range from 600 to 2,800 square feet, are likewise diverse. The unit is 719 square feet larger than a typical square foot. Locals in several northern and eastern states continue to use the term “katha” as a unit to refer to land area, despite the fact that its use has declined since the mid-20th century, when the metric system of measurement became more widely used in India. Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal are states where the unit is still occasionally used. This unit, which is not standardized, denotes varied sizes of land in these states. In addition to India, Bangladesh and Nepal also use the katha as a unit of land measurement. The term “katha” also refers to several types of land in these nations.

Kattha is used in the following states: Assam, Bengal, Bihar, and MP.



A Lecha is 144 square feet.

States that employ lecha include Assam.


North Indian units for measuring land

Unit States where it is used
Sarsai Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh
Ghumao Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab
Marla Punjab, Haryana
Bigha Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, UP, West Bengal
Killa Punjab and Haryana
Biswa UP, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh
Kanal Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab.
Gaj Delhi, Punjab and Haryana



Different square feet are denoted by this unit, which is used in several states, depending on the state. The value of the Bigha unit varies from state to state and does not have a standard value, as seen in the chart below:

State 1 Bigha in sq ft
Gujarat 17,424
Madhya Pradesh 12,000
Bihar 27,220
West Bengal 14,400
Himachal Pradesh 8,712
Assam 14,400
UP 27,000
Rajasthan 27,255


Bigha is not used everywhere in the southern region of the country, where more regionalized land measurement units are prominent, despite its widespread appeal. To learn how much 1 acre in Bigha is and how much 1 bigha is in square feet, read our guide to Bigha.



A biswa is actually a bigha’s twenty-first component. However, the result continues to vary when taking into account the particular region of the state where the measurement is being used. For instance, in the eastern region of Uttar Pradesh, 20 biswas equals 1 pucca bigha, and 10 biswas equals 1 kucha bigha. One biswa can cover anywhere between 50 and 150 square yards, depending on the state where it is utilised. In 20 biswas, there are 27,225 square feet. One biswa is 1,350 square feet.

UP, Punjab, Haryana, Uttarakhand, and Himachal Pradesh are the states that use Biswa.


In the northern region of India, a Gaj is a 9 square foot structure that is quite popular. Gaj was previously used in numerous different regions of the Asian continent, though its use is now primarily restricted to the northern states of India. During the Mughal & British eras in India, the term was also used to measure textiles.

Gaj is used in the following states: Delhi, Punjab, and Haryana.



Killa is equivalent to 1 acre and has historically been used as a unit of measurement for farmland in Pakistan and India. When calculating a killa’s rectangular measurement, multiply 220 feet by 198 feet. The size of a Killa is 43,560 square feet. 5 bigha or 8 kanaals are likewise equivalent to one killa.

Killa is used in the following states: Punjab and Haryana



Kanal is another unit that is frequently used in rural areas of Jammu and Kashmir, Haryana, Punjab, and Himachal Pradesh, as well as in some portions of India and Pakistan. Kanals are equal to 5,445 square feet. Additionally, it equates to a tenth of an acre.

Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, and Punjab are the states where kanal is utilised.



A Ghumao is also referred to as the acre’s equivalent and has a square footage of 43,560.

Ghumao is used in the following states: Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh.



The Marla is one of the frequently used land measurement units on the Indian subcontinent. The most common use of the unit is in the northern states of Punjab & Haryana, but it is not as widespread as other regional units like bigha or gaj or global units like acre or hectare. A marla is 272.25 square feet.

Marla is used in the following states: Punjab and Haryana.



A sarsai is 30.25 square feet.

Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh are the states where sarsai is practiced.


South India uses many types of land measurements.

Unit States where it is used
Kuncham Andhra Pradesh
Cent Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka
Ground Parts of Tamil Nadu
Ankanam Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
Guntha Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka



A guntha is 1,089 square feet.

Guntha is used in the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.



An ankanam is 72 square feet.

Ankanam is used in the states of Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka.



A kuncham is 4,356 square feet.

Kuncham is used in the following states: Andhra Pradesh.



The area of Ground A is 2,400 square feet.

The following states use ground: Tamil Nadu.



435.6 square feet make up one penny.

Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu are the states where cent is employed.


Plot and Ground are different.

A plot of land can be any size, whereas ground is a land area that is 2,400 square feet.


West Indian units of land measurement

Unit States where it is used
Biswani Gujarat
Bigha Gujarat
Biswa Gujarat


Metric systems for measuring land in Central India

Unit States where it is used
Bigha Madhya Pradesh


Land measurement: Quick facts

1 acre in bigha

1.613 bigha


1 hectare in bigha

3.954 bigha


1 bigha in square feet

27,000 sqft


1 bigha to acre

0.62 acre


1 bigha in gaj

977.38305872 Gaj


1 acre to sq feet

43,560 sqft


1 acre to katha

32.005906 katha


1 bigha in biswa

1 biswa is 1/20 bigha


Identifying your property’s location

Understanding what area measurement units mean will help you determine the usable area of your property. Knowing the size of your prospective home requires understanding how many square feet there are because the RERA requires area to be described in square footage terms. The procedure is more difficult if you are purchasing land in India because the area is defined using measurements that are specific to that country.




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