Raft foundation: Know the uses, types, advantages, and drawbacks.
Raft foundations are substantial, flat concrete slabs that span the entire building’s footprint and are placed on a flat, secure soil bed. A raft foundation uniformly distributes the building’s weight throughout the entire area underneath the structure. By doing this, the pressure on the underground environment is reduced, creating a solid foundation that is adaptable enough to endure ground movement without losing structural integrity.
Even though these foundations may be shallow, they may be able to disperse loads more evenly than deeper ones. Since the weight of the building is distributed across a much larger surface area than with traditional trench footings or pile footings, the tension acting on the earth beneath is significantly reduced.
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In general, raft foundations are suitable when a structure’s footprint is modest and its structural load needs are minimal. If the foundation slab can handle direct living loads for the intend use of the project, they may also be employ in basements. In sites with poor soil conditions or when access to large excavation machinery is constrain, raft foundations might once again show to be a wise solution.
Through the raft foundation, the weight of the entire structure is dispers to the earth. The method used to disperse stresses in a raft foundation is quite simple. By dividing the total weight of the structure and the mat by the area of the foundation that the mat is covering, soil stress is calculate. Raft foundations have a broader contact surface with the earth than any other type of foundation, which results in a more uniform distribution of weight and less stress and shear collapse risk.
Raft foundation types
The top five raft bases are as follows:
1. A foundation made of flat plates for rafts
One slab of reinforced concrete with a constant thickness covers the bearing area of a raft foundation with a flat plate design. This setup functions effectively when the column loads are light and steady.
2. A raft foundation made of thickened flat plates
The flat plate type is inappropriate when the weights on the columns are excessively heavy. The slab’s thickness needs to be increase in order for it to be use. The strong stress from the columns causes negative bending moments and diagonal shear to be introduce into the slab.
A raft foundation made of beam and slab.
The beams are place at right angles to one another for a raft foundation of the beam and slab type, and the raft slab links all of the beams. The columns go where the beams of the raft meet at right angles.
4. A piled-raft foundation
To support the raft slab in a stack raft foundation, piles are driven into the earth. This type of foundation is advise when the soil has a high water table and low compressibility. Skyscrapers benefit from this nicely. The raft’s foundation is support by piles, which reduce settling and allow for the control of buoyancy impact.
5. Foundation using cellular rafts
Box-type raft foundations and rigid-frame raft foundations are a few of additional names for cellular raft foundations. With this foundational configuration, the slabs at the top and bottom hold the structure together while the walls of the individual boxes serve as the beams.
Raft foundation: advantages
It may be possible to reduce the soil’s propensity for differential settling.
Raft foundations are especially well suit for weak soils because they are design to sustain structures at just short depths.
The weights on the superstructure are dispers more widely.
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