The Importance Of Coastal Regulation Zones For The Ecosystem

In February 1991, the Ministry of Environment and Forests issued the first Coastal Regulation Zone notification under Section 3 of India’s Environment Protection Act, 1986, to regulate coastal activities. What exactly is a coastal regulatory zone? Creeks, bays, oceans, rivers, and backwaters that are impacted by tidal waves and forces and are up to 500 metres from the High Tide Line, as well as the land between the Low Tide Line and the High Tide Line, are included in the Coastal Regulation Zones Act (CRZ). They’ve recently made headlines because a four-story luxury apartment complex in Kochi’s Maradu municipality was demolished on January 11 and 12.

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  • Key Terms for Understanding CRZ Zones
  • What Exactly Is the CRZ Zone?
  • CRZ Rules or Notification
  • The Importance of Coastal Regulation Zone Regulation


Coastal Regulation Zones : Important Terms to Know About CRZ Zones

There are a few terms that the CRZ act considers to help you understand what a coastal regulation zone is. They are explained further below.


  • The line on the land where the highest tide of water meets during spring tide.
  • Low Tide Line – The line on the land where the lowest tide of the spring tide touches.
  • Spring tides – The positions of the sun and moon in relation to the earth have a direct impact on tidal height. When the sun, moon, and earth are all in a straight line, the tide will be higher. These are known as spring tides, and they occur twice a month, once at full moon and once at new moon.


What Exactly Is the CRZ Zone?

The Government of India first brought Coastal Regulation Zone notification to public attention in 1986. According to this notification, CRZ zones are classified as follows:


  • CRZ-1 – These are ecologically sensitive areas that are vital to the survival of the coast’s ecosystem. These include national parks/marine parks, sanctuaries, reserve forests, wildlife habitats, mangroves, and corals/coral reefs. Between the low and high tide lines is the region.
  • CRZ – 2 – This zone includes all areas that have already developed up to the coast’s shoreline, according to the CRZ 2 rules. Unlicensed/unregulated construction is prohibited in this zone. In this area, the CRZ building rules are strictly enforced.
  • CRZ – 3 – This CRZ zone includes rural and urban areas that are relatively undeveloped and do not fall into the preceding two categories. Only agriculture-related activities and limited public facilities are permitted in CRZ 3. It includes areas that have not been extensively built within city limits or in legally designated metropolitan areas.
  • CRZ – 4 – These areas, with the exception of those designated as CRZ-1, CRZ-2, or CRZ-3. Comprise coastline lengths in Lakshadweep, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and a few other smaller islands. These regions are located in the aquatic region up to the territorial limits. In CRZ – 4, activities such as fishing and other related services are permitted. It is illegal to release solid debris in the CRZ, according to the rules.


Coastal Regulation Zones : Notification of CRZ or Rules

  • In India, the CRZ Rules regulate industrial and human activity near the coast in order to conserve coastal ecosystems.
  • Some types of operations, such as large constructions, the establishment of new businesses, the storage or dumping of hazardous materials, mining, reclamation, and bunding, are prohibited within a certain distance from the coast.
  • Following the passage of the Environment Protection Act in 1986, the first CRZ Rules were drafted in the CRZ notification 1991.
  • After they were determined to be overly restrictive, the Centre issued amended Rules in CRZ notification 2011, which included exclusions for the development of the Navi Mumbai airport and projects of the Department of Atomic Energy.
  • The most recent CRZ notification. Known as the CRZ rule 2018-19 or CRZ notification 2018-19, was issue to remove certain development restrictions and streamline the clearance procedure in order to boost tourism in coastal areas.
  • While the Union Environment Ministry develops the Coastal Regulation Zone Rules. State governments are responsible for ensuring their implementation through their Coastal Zone Management Authorities.


The Importance of Coastal Regulation Zone Regulation

  • Protect environmentally sensitive areas such as mangroves and coral reefs, which act as a barrier against tsunamis and cyclones.
  • To strike a balance between coastal environmental protection and conservation.
  • Improving the lives of coastal communities, such as fishermen and indigenous peoples.
  • Resilient measures can be use to mitigate climate change and high-intensity cyclones.





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