What is an earthing system and why is it required?
Electrical earthing is the process of sending the instantaneous discharge of an electrical flow directly to the ground.
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Typically, earthing uses galvanised iron. By employing earthing, the leakage current may be easily accessible. The ground, which has no potential, absorbs the short-circuit current generated by the equipment. Hence, earthing protects the system and machinery from potential danger.
Earthing system Purpose
An earthing or grounding system’s purpose is to provide a safe path for electrical current to travel to the earth in the event of a fault or breakdown.
An earthing system provides a point of reference for electrical circuits and equipment so they can operate at a safe voltage level in relation to the earth.
The earthing system protects equipment and structures from overvoltage and lightning strikes by providing a low-impedance conduit for the electrical energy to travel to the ground.
Importance of the earthing system
An earthing system, also known as a grounding system, provides a safe path for electrical current to flow to the ground in the event of a breakdown or failure. Some factors make this significant:
- Protection of the equipment: An earthing system helps guard against overvoltage or short-circuit conditions that could harm electrical equipment.
- Employee safety An earthing system reduces the risk of electrical shock to employees by offering a low-resistance conduit for electrical current to move to the ground instead than through a person.
- Electrical system operational safety
- Grading of earthing potential (voltage)
- defence against electromagnetic pulses
- safeguarding against lightning
- a low enough impedance to enable efficient problem-solving of the protective system
Insulation coordination that prevents breakdown voltages from being exceed as well as voltage protection that maintains voltage levels within acceptable ranges in the case of a failure (such as lightning, switching surges, or unintend contact with higher voltage equipment)
- Transformers with varying insulating levels
- Voltage limiting to the ground occurs around electrical cables or equipment in conductive materials.
Types of earthing systems
There are five basic methods for providing the neutral and earthing an electrical installation.
System of TN-S earthing
Earthing system TN-C-S
Earthing system for PNB
The “Protective Neutral Bonding” version of the TN-C-S system allows the customer access to an earth terminal that links to the supply neutral.
Earthing method for TT
System for earthing IT
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