Importance, Types, & Negative Effects of Ventilation in Buildings

Buildings must be ventilated or they risk turning into gas houses filled with stale air. Carbon buildup can be caused by inadequate ventilation. It might also make the building’s bacterial population grow. Making it dangerous for the locals to reside there. The process of ventilation is essential because it exchanges the stale air for fresh air.

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Due to a lack of available land, stacked building blocks have evolved over time. These apartment buildings are frequently constructed close together, sometimes without using sufficient ventilation. Buildings lose ventilation due to a variety of factors, including the requirement for insulation, air conditioning driven by excessive temperatures, insect management, managing noise levels, & security concerns. Furthermore, over 60% of the homes in the area are overcrowded, and 70% of the homes have poor ventilation, according to a study on Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution as well as its Perceived Impact on the Health of Women & Their Children: A Household Survey in a Slum of Kolkata, India, which was published on NCBI.


Why is Building Ventilation Important?

Building ventilation is crucial because it helps eliminate pollutants from dwellings. In homes, proper ventilation guarantees the proper CO2 level and air quality index.

As it is more poisonous than air pollution, inadequate ventilation in buildings is even more dangerous to occupants. Sick-building syndrome can also result from inadequate ventilation. causing health problems for those who live there.

Building ventilation aids in

  • Improving the health of the residents
  • Controlling temperature
  • Managing airflow and regulation
  • Enhancing comfort level
  • Managing air quality
  • Controlling moisture


Indian Codes & Standards for Ventilation in Buildings

Building ventilation is governed by international building codes. The code of practice for natural ventilation in residential buildings is the Indian Building Code (IS: 3362). The amount of air changes per hour is how the building code determines how much ventilation is required. The term “air change” describes the ratio of the amount of outside air that can enter a space over the space’s volume in a given hour.

The building needs the air exchange because it controls the impacts of moisture from water use, chemical releases from computing equipment, combustion from cooking, odours in the house, and an excess of carbon dioxide inside the building.


What Kinds of Ventilation There in Buildings and Why Do They Exist?

Building ventilation can take many different forms, including mechanical ventilation, natural ventilation, balanced ventilation, & smoke ventilation.

Buildings must be ventilated or they risk turning into gas houses filled with stale air. Carbon buildup can be caused by inadequate ventilation. It might also make the building’s bacterial population grow. making it dangerous for the locals to reside there. The process of ventilation is essential because it exchanges the stale air for fresh air.


Building Natural Ventilation

Utilizing resources that are already present in nature to provide ventilation is known as “natural ventilation” in buildings. In the past, the majority of structures were ventilated naturally, such as by installing windows across various areas of the walls to allow for wind-driven ventilation.

The building design stage can easily incorporate sufficient ventilation, according to the design norms and requirements. Without relying on mechanical ventilation in buildings, proper upkeep will assist in maintaining an ambient temperature within.

With balconies and purposeful door openings, windows can be constructed with the windward side in mind to help with natural ventilation. The two methods of producing natural ventilation include pressure-driven and stack ventilation.


Building Mechanical Ventilation

The building’s design must offer in regions of buildings where natural ventilation is not possible, mechanical ventilation is used. Mechanical ventilation methods include demand control, tailored, and local exhaust ventilation. Demand-controlled ventilation facilitates room ventilation while promoting energy efficiency. The sensors monitor the CO2 concentration inside the building in a demand-controlled ventilation system. When it reaches its maximum level, it will show that the ventilation system is providing the necessary amount of outdoor air & vice versa.

People can regulate how much ventilation they require thanks to the customised ventilation system. Fresh air is directly delivered to the breathing zone by this technology. This method is more successful than others because it enhances people’s total interior environment. Buildings’ local exhaust ventilation addresses the problem of contaminated interior air. The area’s airborne pollutants are contained by the exhaust ventilation system before they may spread. Air-cleaning equipment is placed in this system to reduce or eliminate the impact of impurities.


Intelligent Ventilation System

Continuous ventilation, or automatically adjusting ventilation systems periodically to attain the ideal interior air quality, is the key to smart ventilation. The focus of the smart ventilation system is on delivering ventilation while lowering energy use, utility prices, and other expenses.

A smart ventilation system adapts the ventilation rate based on a variety of factors, including the building’s location, occupancy level, air quality, and electrical grid requirements. Sensors in the intelligent ventilation system send signals when the system requires repair. Smart ventilation systems are extremely responsive and can immediately change the building’s ventilation. According to the indoor-outdoor temperature as well as the air quality index, it may cause warnings.


Ventilation in Buildings – Natural Ventilation Guidelines

The fundamental rules that must be adhered to in order to sustain natural ventilation in structures are as follows:

  • Ensure that the airflow patterns in the room are appropriate for ventilating each area.
  • The direction of airflow should be from a clean area to a dirty area.
  • Put in exhaust fans to get rid of contaminated air and manage humidity.
  • Ventilators in buildings must always be left open.
  • In damp situations, always leave the exhaust fan on.
  • Use an air purification system in spaces without windows.


Buildings with Poor Ventilation and the Issues They May Raise

Buildings with poor ventilation may have condensation issues, which is a cause for concern. Additionally, inadequate ventilation might cause health risks for occupants of the buildings. The following are a few problems and health issues brought on by inadequate ventilation in buildings:

Mold development: Poor ventilation in buildings can lead to the growth of mould on the walls, ceilings, and even the floors. The humidity level in a building will rise as a result of poor ventilation. High humidity can make the atmosphere uncomfortable for the occupants. People who reside in the building may become ill as a result of excessive humidity.

Damage to walls: An increase in humidity levels & mould growth in the walls can result in damage to the walls, which increases maintenance expenses and health risks.

Allergies and disease transmission: A persistent increase in indoor humidity & mould growth can spread bacteria, viruses, and illnesses like hay fever. Additionally, it may lead to respiratory problems in those who occupy the building.

Bad odour: Poor ventilation can also contribute to unpleasant odours in buildings. Bad odours may persist in that enclosed location because of inadequate ventilation and lack of air movement.


Conclusion on Building Ventilation

Building ventilation is crucial because it protects the occupants’ and the building’s health. It is possible to use a variety of ventilation systems, including mechanical, intelligent, and natural ventilation systems. The general temperature, moisture, and air quality of the buildings are managed with the use of ventilation systems. The transmission of allergies and poisons in the air is slowed down by proper ventilation in buildings.



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